Suggested Reading.



Adams, Bridget and Manoj Raithatha. 2015. Building the Kingdom Through Business: A Mission Strategy for the 21st Century World. Watford, UK: Instant Apostle.

The authors hypothesize that business shapes the world and, consequently, Christians can use business to shape the world for good and for God. The book examines godly business in biblical, historical, and practical ways and includes advice on starting a business, as well as case studies of businesses already making a difference.

Addington, Thomas G. and Stephen R. Graves. 1997. A Case for Calling. Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman.

The authors provide practical examples of and biblical insights about how a godly person can have a clear calling in his or her work life, experience a sense of satisfaction, lead a life of influence, and impact the redemption of humanity.

Agyeman, J. 2013. Introducing Just Sustainabilities: Policy, Planning and Practice. London, UK: Zed.

The author explores the origins and subsequent development of the concept of just sustainability. The book discusses how food, space, place, and culture shapes humanity’s abilities of sustainability and social change.

Alford, Helen J. and Michael J. Naughton. 2001. Managing as If Faith Mattered: Christian Social Principles in the Modern Organization. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

The authors push back against the often-observed dichotomy between private and public morality. Based on social teachings of Christianity in general, and Catholicism in particular, the authors connect ideas such as the common good, virtue, and social principles with concrete management issues such as job design, just wages, corporate ownership, marketing communication, and product development.

Alinsky, Saul D. 1989. Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals. New York, NY: Vintage.

In this reprint of his 1971 text, the author, who is generally considered the founder of the modern community organizing movement, influenced many change makers, including Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama. The book’s purpose is to educate the reader on “the difference between being a realistic radical and being a rhetorical one.”

Alvord, S., D. Brown, and W. Letts. 2004. “Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 40(3):260-282.

The authors analyze seven cases of social entrepreneurship widely recognized as successful. This article suggests factors associated with successful social entrepreneurship that leads to significant changes for poor and marginalized groups in social, political, and economic contexts. It generates propositions about core innovations, leadership and organization, and scaling up in social entrepreneurship to produce societal transformation. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for social entrepreneurship practice, research, and continued development.

Anderson, Gerald H. 1994. Mission Legacies: Biographical Studies of Leaders of the Modern Missionary Movement. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.

This book examines seventy-eight leaders of the modern missionary movement. The book is divided into four categories: (1) promoters and interpreters; (2) theologians and historians; (3) theorists and strategists; and (4) administrators. The last category is helpful for leaders in business and mission to see how others have approached the marketplace in past eras.

Argandoña, Antonio and Lena Strandberg. 2011. “Governance and Subsidiarity in Firms” in Globalisation, Governance and Ethics: New Managerial and Economic Insights. New York, NY: Nova Science.

The authors discuss the complex variables that interact bi-directionally within a firm, as managers create decision rules and carry out action plans. Variables include trust, effectiveness, efficiency, organization survival, consistency, and the dignity of the persons involved in the firms and their personal rights. The authors conclude that optimal economic outcome is not an economic problem but is rather a function of psychological and ethical variables.

Arrillaga-Andreessen, Laura. 2012. Giving 2.0: Transform Your Giving and Our World. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

The basic premise of this book is that the future of philanthropy requires far more than just impersonal financial donation, but donor involvement as well. The author shows how individuals of every age and income level can harness the power of technology, collaboration, innovation, advocacy, and social entrepreneurship to take their giving to the next level and beyond. For example, she suggests that contributing expertise, giving a loan (instead of a donation), volunteering online, or providing funds to solve long-term structural problems are valid forms of the new philanthropy model she advocates.

Arnold, Vicky, James C. Lampe, and Steve G. Sutton. 2011. “Understanding the Factors Underlying Ethical Organizations: Enabling Continuous Ethical Improvement.” Journal of Applied Business Research 15(3):1-20.

The authors introduce a four-stage model to explain the ethical condition of a company. They provide historical examples to illustrate each stage of the model. In addition, the authors expend significant energy presenting examples of how firms transition from one stage to another. They argue that the culture of an organization, which is determined by its top executives, is the driving force behind corporate ethics.

Avolio, Bruce J., Fred O. Walumbwa, and Todd J. Weber. 2009. “Leadership: Current Theories, Research, and Future Directions.” Annual Review of Psychology 60(1):421-449.

The authors examine recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. They begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. They then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, and/or distributed. The authors examine the role of relationships by reviewing leader-member exchanges and emerging work on “followership.” Finally, they discuss scholarship on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership.

Austin, J., H. Stevenson and J. Wei-Skillern. 2006. “Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Same, Different, or Both?” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 30(1):1-22.

The authors assert that entrepreneurship has been the engine propelling much of the growth of the business sector as well as a driving force behind the rapid expansion of the social sector. This article offers a comparative analysis of commercial and social entrepreneurship using a prevailing analytical model from commercial entrepreneurship. The analysis highlights key similarities and differences between these two forms of entrepreneurship and presents a framework for how to approach the social entrepreneurial process more systematically and effectively.

Bacon, Jono. 2009. The Art of Community. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly.

Online communities are the twenty-first century’s equivalent of the town square, allowing an organizer the opportunity to recruit, develop, motivate, manage, and motivate individuals to become active participants within the community. The title of this text is a bit misleading, as the author’s experience and perspective is less focused on communities in general and more concerned with online open-source software communities.

Badcock, Gary D. 1998. The Way of Life: A Theology of Christian Vocation. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

This author attempts to create a theology of vocation with the thesis that Christian vocation is essentially the call to love God and neighbor. He begins with the Bible and then draws on both Protestant and Catholic theological sources. He concludes that Christian vocation is ultimately part of the reconciling mission of Jesus and that a Christian’s vocation is not the same as their occupation; vocation is fundamentally less about what one does than about what one is.

Baehr, Peter, and Gordon C. Wells. 2002. The Protestant Ethic and the “Spirit” of Capitalism and Other Writings. New York, NY: Penguin.

The authors detail numerous intrinsic and fatal flaws in Max Weber’s Protestant Ethic. They believe that Weber opposes the Marxist concept of dialectical materialism and relate the rise of the capitalist economy to the Calvinist belief in the moral value of hard work and the fulfillment of one’s worldly duties. Chief among the authors’ complaints are Weber’s ignorance of Christianity as well as his ignorance of economics. Additionally, they criticize Weber’s Nietzschean value relativism, gnostic metaphysics, and petty bigotries. 

Baer, Michael R. 2006. Business as Mission: The Power of Business in the Kingdom of God. Seattle, WA: YWAM.

The author argues that Christian business leaders can play a pivotal role in transforming society and spreading the gospel. However, the author rejects the notion that ministry and business separate activities and asserts instead that humanity needs to collapse the sacred and secular.

Baer, Michael R. 2015. 2IC: Business as Mission for the Rest of Us. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace.

The author asserts that Christian business leaders have the opportunity to transform society and spread the gospel. But seizing this opportunity requires thinking differently about God, his kingdom, his purposes in the world, and business. This book is based on the lives of Joseph and Daniel and is written for those Christian business leaders who are not owners or entrepreneurs, who the author calls “second in command” (or 2IC).

Bailey, Stephen. 2007. “Is Business as Mission Honest?” Evangelical Missions Quarterly 42(3):368-372.

The author addresses the basic question of whether it is ethical “to present yourself to a local government as a businessperson without disclosing your missionary agenda when the government is clearly opposed to the propagation of Christian faith by foreigners?” Another version of this question is, “Is business as a mission honest?” The author’s short answer is “yes,” because governments are not ignorant to the Christian faith of the people they grant business, diplomatic, and expert status visas to, and the host country derives significant benefit from the BAM practitioner or tentmaker.

Baker, D. L. 2009. Tight Fists or Open Hands? Wealth and Poverty in Old Testament Law. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

The author offers a systematic overview of all provisions in Old Testament law dealing with work, property, and other economic elements of life. He includes an analysis of scriptural texts and their historical/cultural contexts, grouping these laws together by topic and considering the similarities and differences between the Decalogue, Book of the Covenant, Holiness Code, and Deuteronomic Laws. The author puts these texts into the wider context of ancient Near Eastern law in order to establish which attitudes are distinctively biblical.

Bakke, Raymond J. 1997. A Theology as Big as the City. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity.

The author observes a number of trends facing urban areas near the turn of the millennium: “a crack cocaine epidemic, assault weapons, massive numbers of homeless children, HIV/AIDS and (in the U.S.) what Time magazine has called ‘the browning of America,’” determining that urban areas require new levels of care and careful attention. This text describes how the author, an evangelical Christian, responded to these new realities and developed an urban theology.

Bakke, Raymond, Brad Smith, and William Hendricks. 2005. Joy at Work. Edmonds, WA: Pear.

The thesis of this book is that work is one of the ways in which humanity honors and glorifies God. The authors’ goal for the text is to lead the worker through a ten-week study that helps them find “joy at work.”

Bales, Kevin. 2004. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

The author, a University of Surrey lecturer, deals with the issue of slavery. He asserts that although slavery is illegal throughout the world, it is a problem “not confined to history” but is a current issue for more than 27 million people who are trapped in one of history's oldest social institutions. Although there are many texts like this one that illuminate the problem of slavery, the strength of this text is that it shows the interconnectedness of the problem and how “new slavery” is indissolubly linked to the global economy.

Banks, Robert J. 1992. God the Worker: Journeys into the Mind, Heart and Imagination of God. Sutherland, New South Wales: Albatross.

This book attempts to develop a theology of work by analyzing God as worker. The author envisions God at work as a: (1) composer and performer; (2) metalworker and potter; (3) garment-maker and dresser; (4) gardener and orchardist; (5) farmer and winemaker; (6) shepherd and pastoralist; (7) tentmaker and camper; and (8) builder and architect. The central theme of this book is that the Kingdom of God transcends all traditional forms of understanding him and he does not reside in church structure, but in a way of life modeled by Jesus and that life as it is expressed in the contemporary church.

Banks, Robert J., ed. 1993. Faith Goes to Work: Reflections from the Marketplace. Washington, DC: Alban Institute.

This book is a collection of authors from a variety of vocations who suggest ways for the church to better equip laity for integrating faith in the workplace. The overall thesis of the text is that in Scripture, there is no dualistically derived gap between private and public, faith and work, charity and justice. To illustrate this, God is presented as a worker (Genesis 1-2; John 5:17; and Revelation 21:5), as shepherd (Psalm 23), warrior (Exodus 15:3), teacher (Psalm 143:10; and Proverbs 15:33), potter (Jeremiah 18:6; and Romans 9:20-21), and as vinedresser (Isaiah 5:1-7; and John 15:1-6).

Batstone, David B. 2003. Saving the Corporate Soul and (Who Knows?) Maybe Your Own: Eight Principles for Creating and Preserving Integrity and Profitability without Selling Out. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

The author offers analysis and suggestions about how values can reinvent an organization’s bad behavior. While the author discusses popular issues such as expensing stock options, treating employees fairly, creating an environmental scorecard, and the like, he does not include “bigger picture” issues like advertising, public relations, or tax structure. The text is filled with examples of companies like Clif Bar, Timberland, and Denny’s.

Battilana, Julie, Matthew Lee, John Walker, and Cheryl Dorsey. 2012. “In Search of the Hybrid Ideal.” Stanford Social Innovation Review. Accessed March 10, 2016.

The authors, researchers from Harvard Business School and Echoing Green, report on a quantitative study of nascent social entrepreneurs, examining the rise of hybrid organizations that combine aspects of non-profit and for-profit organizations, and the challenges these hybrids face as they attempt to integrate traditionally separate organizational models.

Beckett, John D. 2006. Loving Monday: Succeeding in Business Without Selling Your Soul. Exp. ed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity.

The author offers a “how-to guide” for Christians seeking to integrate their faith with their business life. The author pushes back against the conventional wisdom that one must be ruthless to succeed in the workplace.

Befus, David. 2005. Where There Are No Jobs: Enterprise Solutions for Employment and “Public Goods” for the Poor. Miami, FL: Latin America Mission.

The author, drawing from interviews with dozens of leaders, concludes that most leaders do not seek to lead. Rather, they seek to express themselves fully by embracing risks and mistakes and by learning from adversity. They use these skills to inspire others to follow them and convert organizations into communities that identify and foster each member’s highest potential.

Bendix, Reinhard. 1993. Unsettled Affinities. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

The author grew up in Hitler's Germany and immigrated to the U.S. at the age of 23. He became an academic with a research focus in group control and individual decision. He asserts that every person goes through a lifecycle, burdened by circumstance and uneasily suspended between the risks of individual opportunity and the need for psychological support from others, that intersects the numerous social groups formed by family, social clubs, occupation, or given by the ethnic and national affiliation into which people are born. He perceives these psychological and social groups to be a source of strength as well as the source of the drives that ultimately aim to serve humanity’s aspirations.

Blakeley, Edward. 1989. “The Meaning of Local Economic Development” in Planning Local Economic Development: Theory and Practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

This book explores the theories of local economic development while addressing the issues and opportunities faced by cities, towns, and local entities to craft their economic destinies within the global economy. Of particular interest in this text is how the author incorporates sustainability into the definition and practice of local economic development.

Block, Peter. 2009. Community: The Structure of Belonging. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

The author asserts that modern society is beset by fragmentation and that the various sectors of our communities—businesses, schools, social service organizations, churches, and governments—do not work together. Rather, they exist in their own worlds. In addition, so many individual citizens long for connection but end up marginalized, their gifts overlooked and their potential contributions lost. As a result of this disconnection and detachment, it becomes difficult, if not impossible, to for humanity to envision a common future and work towards it together.

Blomberg, Craig. 1999. Neither Poverty nor Riches: A Biblical Theology of Material Possessions. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

The author provides an introduction to a biblical theology of property and economic systems. The author is conservative but embraces a liberal perspective in terms of praxis. For example, he examines the generosity of the patriarchs, Abraham in particular, and how even Joseph used his possessions in order to provide grain for the world and for his family. This authors seems to focus on the receiver’s entitlement to receive, not the donor’s choice to give.

Bolman, Lee G. 2016. Reframing Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

This book serves as a general introduction to the field of social organization. This text analyzes what the author considers society’s most pressing issues, such as globalization, changing workforces, multi-cultural and virtual workforces and communication, and sustainability. The authors focus on a four-frame model that studies organizations, including factories, families, jungles, and theaters or temples. This model includes the (1) Structural Frame: how to organize and structure groups and teams to get results; (2) Human Resource Frame: how to tailor organizations to satisfy human needs, improve human resource management, and build positive interpersonal and group dynamics; (3) Political Frame: how to cope with power and conflict, build coalitions, hone political skills, and deal with internal and external politics; and (4) Symbolic Frame: how to shape a culture that gives purpose and meaning to work, stage organizational drama for internal and external audiences, and build team spirit through ritual, ceremony, and story.

Boo, Katherine. 2012. Behind the Beautiful Forevers. New York, NY: Random House.

America’s shrinking middle-class is often lamented, a situation in which the gap between the rich and poor is growing ever wider. While that dynamic is a reality, the gap between the rich and poor in India is even greater. In this text, the author, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, examines the issue of global change and inequality from a human context, through the dramatic story of families striving toward a better life in Annawadi, a makeshift settlement in the shadow of luxury hotels near the Mumbai airport.

Bornstein, David and Susan Davis. 2010. Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

This book serves as a general introduction to the field of social entrepreneurship. It begins with a brief history of the field, detailing the influence of Bill Drayton and the Ashoka Foundation, among others. The authors define how social entrepreneurship is unique from business and non-profit models, but they also stress how social entrepreneurship is interdisciplinary and has the potential to impact many different institutions, including businesses, governments, and philanthropic organizations. They discuss how humanity can create a more innovative society by changing educational models and by legitimizing social entrepreneurship in the eyes of the public.

Boyle, Greg. 2010. Tattoos on the Heart: The Power of Boundless Compassion. New York, NY: Free Press.

The author, Fr. Gregory Boyle, a priest working in a neighborhood with the highest concentration of murderous gang activity in Los Angeles, created an organization called Homeboy Industries to provide job training, tattoo removal, job training, and encouragement so that people looking to leave gang culture could work together and learn the mutual respect that comes from collaboration. The author examines the reality of how to fight despair and learn to meet the world with a loving heart, staying faithful in spite of failure, and offers insights to seeing the poor, broken, and marginalized through their own eyes rather than looking down upon, judging them, or patronizing them.

Brennan, Patrick McKinley. 2014. “Subsidiarity in the Tradition of Catholic Social Doctrine” in Global Perspectives on Subsidiarity. Dordrecht, DE: Springer Science and Business Media.

The author discusses the historical events that preceded the Catholic Church’s 1931 response by Pope Pius XI in Quadragesimo Anno to the social dissolution wrought by the revolutionaries of 1789. The author argues that Catholic social doctrine has continued to develop since 1931 and offers insights on the significance of subsidiarity and its relationship to the other principles comprised by the doctrine, including the common good, social justice, and solidarity.

Brown, Michael Jacoby. 2006. Building Powerful Community Organizations: A Personal Guide to Creating Groups that Can Solve Problems and Change the World. Arlington, MA: Long Haul.

This text is intended for individuals who want to start, strengthen, or revitalize a group to address a community issue. The author focuses on practical steps to build a successful community organization, along with case studies that demonstrate each step. In addition, the book examines how to run engaging meetings, recruit and motivate community members, raise necessary funds, and turn a passion into a powerful tool for social change.

Bull, Michael. 2008. “Challenging Tensions: Critical, Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives on Social Enterprise.” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research 14(5):268-275.

The author asserts that a social enterprise is a business with primarily social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in the business or in the community, rather than being driven by the need to maximize profit for shareholders and owners.

Bunderson, J. Stuart and Kathleen M. Sutcliffe. 2003. “Management Team Learning Orientation and Business Unit Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 88(3):552-560.

The authors assert that although research has shown that teams can differ in the extent to which they encourage proactive learning and competence development among their members (a team learning orientation), the performance consequences of these differences are not well understood. The authors suggest that, although a team learning orientation can encourage adaptive behaviors that lead to improved performance, it is also possible for teams to compromise performance in the near term by overemphasizing learning, particularly when they have been performing well.

Burghardt, Walter J. 2004. Justice: A Global Adventure. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.

The author, a Jesuit, uses Roman Catholic social teachings to raise the consciousness of Christians regarding the United States’ social, religious, and environmental issues. The text is a helpful primer for those unfamiliar with any issue of social justice and in its attempt to give voice to the voiceless. For any meaningful discussion, however, the author’s approach is naïve and one-sided.

Byron, William J. 2006. The Power of Principles: Ethics for the New Corporate Culture. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.

The author, a Jesuit priest, offers an overview of the fundamental precepts of conducting oneself in an ethical, competitive manner and rising above the cronyism, conniving morals, and dishonesty that have become commonplace in America today. Most interestingly, he includes a chapter on the principle of subsidiarity along with the principles of integrity, veracity, fairness, human dignity, participation, commitment, social responsibility, the common good, and love.

Caldwell, Cam, et al. 2012. “Transformative Leadership: Achieving Unparalleled Excellence.” Journal of Business Ethics 109(2):175-187.

The authors assert that ongoing cynicism about leaders and organizations calls for a new standard of ethical leadership that the authors term “transformative leadership.” This new leadership model integrates ethically-based features of six well-regarded leadership perspectives and combines key normative and instrumental elements of each.

Cameron, Kim S. and Robert E. Quinn. 2011. Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/John Wiley and Sons.

The authors provide a means for understanding and changing organizational culture in order to make organizations more effective. This work provides validated instruments for diagnosing organizational culture and management competency, a theoretical framework (competing values) for understanding organizational culture, and a systematic strategy and methodology for changing organizational culture and personal behavior.

Chafuen, Alejandro A. 2003. Faith and Liberty: The Economic Thought of the Late Scholastics. Lanham, MD: Lexington.

The author draws upon many texts largely unfamiliar to English-speaking audiences to illustrate that the origin of modern economics lays in natural law and scholastic moral theology. A common working assumption of many economists is that modern economics began with Adam Smith. The author argues that instead Spanish theologians in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries grappled with ideas normally associated with Smith and that economics contain theological truths.

Chakrabarti, Vishaan. 2013. A Country of Cities: A Manifesto for an Urban America. New York, NY: Metropolis.
The author argues that well-designed cities are the key to solving the United States’ great national challenges, which he sees as environmental degradation, unsustainable consumption, economic stagnation, rising public health costs, and decreased social mobility. He believes that this recovery will involve embracing high-density urbanization, meaning 10 or more dwellings per hectare. By doing so, he asserts, cities can be the force leading to a new, progressive, and prosperous era.

Chamberlain, Gary L. and Dianna Dickins. 2004. “The Evolution of Business as a Christian Calling.” Catholic Social Thought and Management Education 25(1):27-36.
The authors assert that business as a calling sheds new light on the role business can play in the life of a Christian. Within this context, they examine four themes: (1) the common good; (2) subsidiarity; (3) solidarity; and (4) participation by workers.

Chambers, Edward. 2006. Roots for Radicals: Organizing for Power, Action, and Justice. New York, NY: Continuum.

The vision and philosophy of community organizing that Saul Alinsky advocated in his book Rules for Radicals were distilled into the organization that he founded in the 1940s, Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF). The author of this text is the current executive director of that organization, whose mission is to train people to take responsibility for solving the problems in their own communities and to renew the interest of citizens in public life. The IAF defines a radical as “a person who searches for meaning and affirms community.” While not a “how-to guide,” per se, it does give tactics to enact Alinsky’s strategy.

Chambers, Robert. 1984. Rural Development: Putting the Last First. London, UK: Longman.

The author asserts that rural poverty is often unseen or misperceived by researchers, scientists, administrators, and academics. The author points out five primary aspects of rural poverty: (1) the poverty itself; (2) physical weakness; (3) isolation; (4) vulnerability; and (5) powerlessness. The author posits effective development strategies that can be applied to combat rural poverty.

Chertavian, Gerald. 2012. A Year Up: How a Pioneering Program that Teaches Young Adults Real Skills for Real Jobs—With Real Success. New York, NY: Viking.
The author advocates a pioneering program that offers low-income young adults training mentorship internships and jobs with leading companies, tracing the progress of one “Year Up” class from admissions through graduation.

Childs, James M. 1995. Ethics in Business: Faith at Work. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

Childs adapts Luther's two-kingdom theology, arguing that the order of creation can be separated into two parts: (1) the orders of vocation, which he sees as humanity’s application of their call to service to the practical circumstances in the world; and (2) the orders of anticipation, in which, according to Childs, humanity works for the common good though business activity as prelude to God's coming kingdom.

Cho, Eugene. 2014. Overrated: Are We More in Love with the Idea of Changing the World Than Actually Changing the World? Colorado Springs, CO: David C. Cook.

The author writes that, “I like to talk about changing the world but I don't really like to do what it takes.” He asserts that most people are like him: they want to change the world but are not changing themselves. He goes on to argue that people can change and that it is possible to move from talk to action, to show Jesus's love to a needy world in tangible and practical ways.

Claar, Victor V. and Robin Kendrick Klay. 2007. Economics in Christian Perspective: Theory, Policy and Life Choices. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity.

The authors, Christian economists, offer the layperson a step-by-step introduction to the field of economics, as seen through the lens of theological concerns. This text dialogues between the academic disciplines of theology and economics. 

Connors, Roger and Tom Smith. 2012. Change the Culture, Change the Game: The Breakthrough Strategy for Energizing your Organization and Creating Accountability for Results. London, UK: Portfolio/Penguin.

The authors assert that the business climate between 2000-2010 was more focused on people than product. They believe that by changing the perspectives of business people, organizational culture will change for the better as resistance to change is based on humanity’s familiarity with comfort and custom. In many respects, this book could be entitled The Oz Principle, Part II, as it expands on the authors’ previous collaborations on the The Oz Principle. 

Cope, Landa. 2006. An Introduction to the Old Testament Template: Rediscovering God's Principles for Discipling All Nations. Burtigny, Switzerland: The Template Institute Press.

The author believes that the Christian faith has become weak and ineffectual in dealing with issues of politics, economics, the family, and daily life because the Bible has not been used as a template. The book shows how to disciple communities and nations, including in economic development. 

Corbett, Steve, and Brian Fikkert. 2009. When Helping Hurts: How to Alleviate Poverty Without Hurting the Poor—and Yourself. Chicago, IL: Moody.

The authors argue that Christians often have erroneous assumptions about the causes of poverty, resulting in the use of strategies that do considerable harm to poor people and to themselves. The authors offer a new framework for thinking about helping the poor, which defines poverty in terms of broken relationships, rather than as mere material deprivation. This concept distinguishes between three types of economic need: relief, rehabilitation, and development. The result of this framework is effective work with the poor to help them rise out of poverty.

Cosden, Darrell. 2006. The Heavenly Good of Earthly Work. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.

The author gives an overview of the biblical significance of work through an eschatological lens. The author emphasizes that the Christian is a “new creation in Christ” and examines how that dynamic unfolds in the contemporary church.

Cosden, Darrell and Jürgen Moltmann. 2004. A Theology of Work: Work and the New Creation. Bletchley, UK: Paternoster.

The authors examine a biblical theology of work, focusing on eschatology with the emphasis on the “new creation” in Christ aspect that begins to unfold in the lives of Christians in the contemporary world.

Covey, Steven M. R. 2006. The Speed of Trust. New York, NY: Free Press.

The author provides a framework for understanding trust and a set of guidelines for building and restoring trust. Covey sees trust as a paradigm that includes five waves of trust: (1) self trust based on the principle of credibility; (2) relationship trust based on the principle of proper behavior; (3) organizational trust based on the principle of alignment; (4) market trust based on the principle of reputation; (5) and societal trust based on the principle of contribution. The book examines the underlying principles of these waves, as well as 13 behaviors that establish trust.

Cunfu, Chen and Huang Tianhai. 2004. “The Emergence of a New Type of Christians in China Today.” Review of Religious Research 46(2):183-200.

This article discusses a new category of Christians emerging in China, called “Boss Christians.” These Christians are business executives and are not afraid to flaunt their financial and religious status.

Danker, William J. 2002. Profit for the Lord. Portland, OR: Wipf & Stock.

The author analyzes the Moravians and the Basel Mission Trading Company in general, and the economic structures the Moravians created to support their mission work in particular. The author argues that mission must include ministry to humanity’s economic needs and hopes that business will assist Christians on mission frontiers on all six continents to find the forms that will carry out the tentmaking mission of the church in the marketplace.

De Soto, Hernando. 2000. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York, NY: Basic Books.

The author, a prominent developing world economist, examine why some people in the world can create capital and others cannot. He argues that the problem, outside of the West, is the lack of a legal process for making property systems work.

Dees, J. Gregory, Jed Emerson, and Peter Economy. 2001. Enterprising Nonprofits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

In this text, Dees, who would later become known for building social entrepreneurship as an academic field of study, lays out his manifesto for social enterprise. This is the first in a trilogy of books that addresses the need for non-profit organizations to become more businesslike, without harming the organizations’ existing social mission.

Dees, J. Gregory. 2001. “The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship.’” Accessed March 5, 2016.

The author, who originated the term “social entrepreneur,” notes that the idea of social entrepreneurship has struck a responsive chord and is a phrase well-suited to the new millennium, combining the passion of a social mission with an image of businesslike discipline, innovation, and determination. He asserts that “social entrepreneur” is, however, an old concept and needs to be defined more closely, for fear that everything in the non-profit realm becomes labeled “social enterprise.”

DeKoster, Lester. 2010. Work, The Meaning of Your Life: A Christian Perspective. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian's Library.

The author orients the layperson to the way Christians can and should transform their perspective on everyday work, ranging from the daily experience of the line worker to the civilization-building power of human labor. He emphasizes Christian hope as the mechanism that breaks the brokenness that sin introduced into secular work.

Diehl, William E. 1976. Christianity and Real Life. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress.

The author is a retired corporate executive and lay leader in the Lutheran Church. This book is partly a manifesto for collapsing the sacred and secular, living as Christians everyday at work and not just on Sundays. The other part of the book is a “how-to guide” based on the author’s personal experiences. 

Diehl, William E. 1991. The Monday Connection: A Spirituality of Competence, Affirmation, and Support in the Workplace. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco.

The author writes as a practitioner on the difference that a theological perspective makes in the marketplace and why the church needs to provide it. 

Donati, Pierpaolo. 2009. “What Does ‘Subsidiarity’ Mean? The Relational Perspective.” Journal of Markets and Morality 12(2):211–243.

The author discusses the history and semantics of “subsidiarity” from the viewpoint of its socio-anthropological implications and its relationship to solidarity. He argues that a single definition may not be recognized because people hold different perspectives on the term, but in general “subsidiarity” refers to the common good, dignity, the norms of reciprocity, rights and duties, and trust.

Eldred, Kenneth A. 2005. God is at Work. Ventura, CA: Regal.

The author argues that Christian business leaders should pursue for-profit enterprises designed to facilitate the transformation of people and nations. The book explains how to engage with this emerging missions movement, one in which Christians are meeting significant spiritual and economic needs in the developing world.

Eldred, Kenneth A. 2010. The Integrated Life: Experience the Powerful Advantage of Integrating your Faith and Work. Montrose, CO: Manna Ventures.

The author shows how to integrate work and faith such that all areas of life further God’s kingdom, glorify him, and fulfill each person’s life mission. The author confronts pervasive misconceptions stemming both from business and the church. He debunks these misguided beliefs and attitudes that hold Christian business practitioners back and reveals a transformational new paradigm for purpose-driven work.

Elkington, John and Pamela Hartigan. 2009. The Power of Unreasonable People: How Social Entrepreneurs Create Markets that Change the World. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.
The authors analyze the highly unconventional entrepreneurs who are solving some of the world's most pressing economic, social, and environmental problems. The authors also relate how these entrepreneurs are disrupting existing industries, value chains, and business models—and in the process creating fast-growing markets around the world. In addition, this text offers a classification of different kinds of social entrepreneurs, ranging from pure charity to pure business.

English, David. 2001. “Paul’s Secret: A 1st-Century Strategy for a 21st Century World.” World Christian 14(3):22-26.

The author argues that the integration of mission and business might seem new to the last 50 years of history, but in reality it is as old as the Christian faith itself. The author asserts that not only was St. Paul a full-time tentmaker during much of his missionary career, but his doing so was providential for a successful ministry.

Fruchterman, Jim. 2011. “For Love or Lucre.” Stanford Social Innovation Review Spring 2011:41-47.

The author explores a variety of legal structures for the social entrepreneur to explore depending upon their circumstances, needs, and wants. 

Garber, Steven. 2014. Visions of Vocation: Common Grace for the Common Good. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity.

The author gives an overview of Christians who have lived out their vocations in their workplaces and suggests how they may answer the question, “Can we know the world and still love the world?”

Gellis, Harold, Kreindy Giladi, and Hershey H. Friedman. 2002. “Biblical and Talmudic Basis of Accounting Ethics.” The CPA Journal September 2002:11-13.

The authors indicate that the Bible and Talmud are heavily referenced as sources to justify strong ethical practices in accounting. The holy books of the Jewish faith address many topics, such as auditing and conflicts of interest. The authors note that honesty and fair dealing, as well as avoidance of deception, are explicitly mentioned as moral behavior in these texts.

Gilbert, Joseph T. 2000. “Sorrow and Guilt: An Ethical Analysis of Layoffs.” SAM Advanced Management Journal 5(2):4-13.

The author analyzes the ethics of downsizing through the application of three prominent ethical approaches: (1) utilitarianism; (2) rights and duties; and (3) justice and fairness. The author concludes that, except for cases in which layoffs are the only way to save a company, downsizing is not an ethically valid or morally responsible corporate behavior.

Gill, David W. 2008. It's About Excellence: Building Ethically Healthy Organizations. Provo, UT: Executive Excellence.

The author, a Christian, makes his faith implicit while describing a practical approach to business ethics for use in the marketplace. The author’s goal is to move the reader from being ethically unaware or averse to being marketplace participants who proactively engage in what he calls “mission control” ethics. 

Gillespie, Teresa and Timothy Lucas. 2012. “Blurring the Boundaries: Emerging Legal Forms for Hybrid Organizations, Implications for Christian Social Entrepreneurs.” The Journal of Biblical Integration in Business 15(1):11-28.

The authors assert that hybrid social enterprise organizations, which combine profit and social goals, are emerging trends in the business world circa 2010 and that Christians are also using new forms to pursue ministry. This article explores the legal and practical limitations of combining social mission with profit generation in the same organizational structure. This article addresses some broader implications of this trend, especially for Christian social ventures.

Goh, Robbie B.H. 2011. “Market Theory, Market Theology: The Business of the Church in the City” in Postsecular Cities: Space, Theory and Practice, 50-68. London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic.

This article examines the Protestant church that has until recently disapproved of the union of church and marketplace. The author, based in Singapore, favorably observes business attitudes of Christians in the marketplace. 

Goheen, William. 2004. The Galtronics Story. Portland, OR: Wipf & Stock.

This is the narrative of Galtronics, a global business created for the express purpose of sharing the gospel of Jesus Christ. The author offers this company as a good model of the integration of business and mission.

Golden, Kerri, Allyson Hewitt, and Michelle McBane. 2010. “Social Entrepreneurship: Social Impact Metrics,” MaRS White Paper Series. Toronto, ON: MaRS Discovery District. Accessed March 5, 2016.

The authors assert that the most significant obstacle to the creation of social capital markets is the lack of a common measure of how much good has been done: there is no agreed-upon unit of social impact that mirrors the profit in traditional capital markets. The report examines the importance of appropriately validated, cost-effective, and integrated impact investing performance measurements for social ventures. 

Goleman, Daniel, R. Boyatzis, and A. McKee. 2001. “Primal Leadership: The Hidden Driver of Great Performance.” Harvard Business Review 79(11):42-53.

The authors contend, based on two years of research, that a leader's mood and behaviors have enormous effects on an organization’s bottom line performance, since moods are contagious within organizations. The authors conclude by advocating that the task of primal leadership is to manage the leader’s mood and the moods of their followers.

Gort, Gea, Mats Tunehag, and Nelleke de Jong-van den Berg. 2015. Business as Mission: Een Eake-up Call Voor Kerk, Werk en Samenleving. Rotterdam, NL: Urban Mission.

The authors assert that the church should be in the midst of society, not separated from it. Their book, the first of its kind in Dutch, shows how business can cause positive change in society. The text is illustrated with real-life stories of businesspeople, church planters, and development, missionary, and church leaders, including Gert-Jan Huisman, John van den Akker, Kees de Zwart, Jaap-Jan Verboom, Jan-Willem Aalderink, Georges Dubi, Harm Tomassen, Arleen Westerhof, and Piet Brinksma.

Grant, Adam M. 2013. Give and Take: A Revolutionary Approach to Success. New York, NY: Viking.

The author, a professor of business at Wharton, reports that culture is focused on the individual drivers of success: (1) passion; (2) hard work; (3) talent; and (4) luck. He asserts, however, that in 2010, success is increasingly dependent on how people interact with others while at work and that most people operate as takers, matchers, or givers.

Greer, Peter and Peter Smith. 2009. The Poor Will Be Glad: Joining The Revolution to Lift the World Out of Poverty. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

The authors consider the use of business as a poverty-fighting tool to carry God’s justice, mercy, and compassion to the hurting people in the world.

Greer, Peter. 2014. Entrepreneurship for Human Flourishing. Washington, DC: AEI Press. Accessed March 15, 2015.

The author provides an overview of entrepreneurship as the key to helping people around the world emerge from poverty, with an emphasis on firsthand stories. He argues that entrepreneurial businesses sustain productive development long after charitable giving dries up, citing this dynamic as the real engine of true human flourishing. 

Greer, Peter. 2015. Stop Helping Us! A Call to Compassionately Move Beyond Charity. McLean, VA: Institute for Faith, Work and Economics.

The author asserts that many well-intentioned efforts by Christians towards poverty alleviation have had the opposite effect and leave the most vulnerable populations in a worse situation than before Christians “helped.” The author shares his experiences of aid in the developing world and challenges humanity’s conceptions of charity, preferring an economic development/BAM approach.

Gregg, Samuel. 2001. Economic Thinking for the Theologically Minded. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

The author analyzes through the lens of mission the critical technical and foundational assumptions employed in economic analysis.

Grenz, Stanley J. 1999. “God’s Business: A Foundation for Christian Mission in the Marketplace.” Crux 35(1):19-25.

The author is best known for his robust Trinitarian theology. He applies this theology to business, arguing that Christians should see work as mission to the marketplace, not just providing for human needs, but as servants to the public, encouraging Christians to participate in the “good life.”

Griffiths, Brian. 2007. “The Church and Globalization.” Acton Commentary. Accessed March 2, 2016.

The author asserts that the church has the potential to tackle world poverty and to change the culture of globalization in a way that governments and international institutions do not.

Gross, Larry. 2001. “Downsizing: Are Employers Reneging on Their Social Promise?” CPCU Journal 54(2):112-121.

The author contends that downsizing violates the psychological and social contracts implicit in the employer-employee relationship, since there is an implied sense of job security afforded employees as long as they are productively advancing the goals of the organization. The author asserts that downsizing productive employees is a clear violation of this contract and is immoral.

Grudem, Wayne A. 2003. Business for the Glory of God: The Bible’s Teaching on the Moral Goodness of Business. Wheaton, IL: Crossway.

The author’s central thesis is that business is glorifying to God when it is conducted in a way that imitates God's character and nature. This text is a good defense of capitalism and an easy read for the average reader, but from a theological perspective, others’ works (including those of Johnson, Mouw, Miller, and Stackhouse) do a better job of integrating a unified theology.

Grudem, Wayne A. and Barry Asmus. 2013. The Poverty of Nations: A Sustainable Solution. Wheaton, IL: Crossway.

The authors give an overview of poverty at the national level in nations around the world and offer a policy analysis of what nations can and cannot do to alleviate poverty. They argue for the importance of personal freedom, the rule of law, private property, moral virtue, and education. This book offers a clear path for promoting economic prosperity and safeguarding a country’s long-term stability—a sustainable solution for a world looking for the way forward.

Guinness, Os. 1998. The Call: Finding and Fulfilling the Central Purpose of Your Life. Nashville, TN: Word Publishing.

The author introduces the layperson to the doctrine of calling and intentionality, examining the implications for society in history and for today. Guinness’ premise is that “No idea short of God's call can ground and fulfill the truest human desire for purpose and fulfillment.”

Guinness, Os. 2003. Rising to the Call. Nashville, TN: W Pub. Group.

The author offers a good introduction to the doctrine of calling in the context of biblical mission. 

Guinness, Os, Ginger Koloszyc, and Karen Lee-Thorp. 2001. Entrepreneurs of Life: Faith and the Venture of Purposeful Living. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress.

The authors argue that all people should live their daily lives with an entrepreneurial spirit and be informed by entrepreneurial virtues. They examine the foundational issues through which faith acts upon the public good of contemporary society. The authors argue that the entrepreneur is the person who assumes the responsibility for a creative task, not as an assigned role, a routine function, or an inherited duty, but as a venture of faith, including risk and danger, in order to bring into the world something new and profitable. Called in this sense, and answering such a call by rising to it in faith, entrepreneurs use their talents and resources to be fruitful and bring added value into the world—quite literally making the invisible visible, the future present, the ideal real, the impossible an achievement, the desired an experience, the status quo dynamic, and the dream a fulfillment.

Haugen, Gary A. and Victor Boutros. 2014. The Locust Effect: Why the End of Poverty Requires the End of Violence. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

The authors make the same argument, less densely, that Hernando de Soto made in The Mystery of Capital, arguing that protecting people from violence and theft is an essential starting point for all forms of social flourishing, including economic flourishing. They further argue that the primary factor keeping people in poverty is that in much of the world, the rule of law is weak or absent, so the powerful prey upon the weak with impunity.

Hay, Robert D. and Edmund R. Gray. 2007. “Introduction to Social Responsibility” in Ethics and Values: Basic Readings in Theory and Practice. Old Tappan, NJ: Pearson Custom.

The authors believe that corporations should be held accountable for more than profit maximization. Their argument is based on stakeholder theory and is presented in the form of an historical account of the evolution of managerial thinking that keeps people in poverty is that in much of the world, the rule of law is weak or absent, and the powerful can prey upon the weak with impunity. 

Hayami, Yūjirō and Yoshihisa Godo. 2005. Development Economics: from the Poverty to the Wealth of Nations. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

This text is a systematic primer on the key topics in development economics. The authors examine the reasons why a few countries have achieved a high level of affluence while the majority remain poor and stagnant. It represents an original combination of classical political economy, particularly in the context of East Asia.

Hayward, Steven F. 2013. “Mere Ecologism.” The Weekly Standard 18(44):41-42.

The author presents a short primer on economic growth and environmental issues, with special attention to a biblical understanding of how human beings relate to their physical environment and what this implies for economic and environmental issues.

Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey Johnson. 2001. Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources. Eighth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

The authors examine the applied behavioral sciences, focusing on fundamental ideas about leadership that have stood the test of years of application in academic, business, not-for-profit, and administrative environments. They introduce Blanchard and Hersey's Situational Leadership model, where the manager matches leadership behavior to a report's ability level and motivation. This text replaces Blanchard’s Leadership and the One Minute Manager and delves much deeper into the topic than he did in that text. 

Hill, Alexander. 2009. Just Business: Christian Ethics for the Marketplace. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity.

The author argues that practicing Christians should be ethical in all areas of life and work. This text addresses the issue of doing business with integrity and is helpful for identifying Christian personal values. 

Hill, Austin and Scott B. Rae. 2010. The Virtues of Capitalism: A Moral Case for Free Markets. Chicago, IL: Northfield.

The authors argue that economic activity is necessary to form critical virtues such as honesty, diligence, and concern for others’ needs. It includes discussion of the larger social structures necessary to facilitate this virtue-forming dynamic.

Hock, R. 1979. “The Workshop as a Social Setting for Paul’s Missionary Preaching.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 14(3):439-450.

The author argues that St. Paul used craftsmanship, his tentmaking, as a method to provide social support for missionary activity. He explains that the workshop was a place within society that philosophers used as a place of intellectual discourse, in much the same way the barbershop or café has been in years gone by in North America. 

Horst, Chris and Peter Greer. 2014. Entrepreneurship for Human Flourishing. Washington, DC: AEI.

The authors argue that in humanity’s efforts to reduce poverty and advance human flourishing, the idea of the “noble nonprofit” has been elevated above entrepreneurship and enterprises that are, at best, seen as moral. The authors believe that businesses of any size play a central role in the war on poverty, which allows people and societies to flourish.

Hughes, Richard and Katherine Beatty. 2005. Becoming a Strategic Leader: Your Role in Your Organization’s Enduring Success. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

The authors focus on a model of strategic leadership composed of three large competency clusters: (1) strategic thinking; (2) strategic acting; and (3) strategic influencing. They then explain and analyze each of these clusters, providing not only a theoretical explanation of the different skills but also examples, tools, and activities to develop them.

Johnson, C. Neal. 2003. “Toward a Marketplace Missiology.” Missiology: An International Review 31(1):87-97.

In this article, the author asserts that God is moving in new and powerful ways in the world through business. The author advocates and describes practical ways for the business professional to integrate their faith into their companies and daily business practices. He argues for a new area of missiology called marketplace missiology and challenges the academic community to add this new aspect of the missio Dei to their curricula to remain relevant in contemporary culture.

Johnson, C. Neal. 2009. Business as Mission: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity.

The author presents a comprehensive “how-to guide” to business as mission for the practitioner and offers a conceptual foundation for understanding BAM’s place in mission. BAM requires mastery of both the world of business and the world of missions, merging and contextualizing both into something significantly different than either alone. 

Josephson Institute for Ethics. 2007. “The Six Pillars of Character,”
Leadership Annotated Bibliography 10. Playa del Rey, CA: Josephson Institute for Ethics. Accessed March 2, 2016.

This piece examines the methodology of making choices that withstand ethical scrutiny based on “the six pillars of character”: (1) trustworthiness; (2) respect; (3) responsibility; (4) fairness; (5) caring; and (6) citizenship. 

Kaemingk, Matthew. 2011. “Lesslie Newbigin’s Missional Approach to the Modern Workplace.” Missiology 39(3):323-333.

The author examines the work of Lesslie Newbigin, who is known primarily as a missionary. Nevertheless, based on his work in India, Newbigin also developed a theological foundation for equipping the laity for Christ’s work in modern secular workplaces.

Kaplan, Robert E. and Robert B. Kaiser. 2003. “Developing Versatile Leadership.” MIT Sloan Management Review 44(4):19-26.

The authors discuss key issues concerning the development of versatile leadership skills among executives within business organizations in the United States. These key issues include the serious limitations suffered by modern conceptions of leadership and the requisite skills for industrial management such as cooperating with peers, giving directions, delegating, and communicating with employees. The authors conclude that managers need to establish a balance between the task-oriented and people-oriented aspects of leadership to avoid inadequate management performance.

Katzenback, Jon R. 1997. “The Myth of the Top Management Team.” Harvard Business Review 75(6): 83-91.

The author argues that in team-based organizations, even the top team seldom functions as a real team. Real teams must follow a well-defined discipline to achieve their performance potential. The author asserts that performance is the key issue, not the fostering of "team values" such as empowerment, sensitivity, or involvement. In the very late twentieth century, the focus on performance was lost in many companies.


Keller, Timothy. 2012. Every Good Endeavor: Connecting Your Work to God's Work. New York, NY: Penguin.

In this book, the author argues that God calls all of humanity to express meaning and purpose through work and careers for the sake of faithful Christian living and witness. 

Kennedy, Robert G. 2006. The Good That Business Does. Grand Rapids, MI: Acton Institute.

The author analyzes the good that business does by providing a reflection, in light of Christian social tradition, on the legitimate role that business plays in modern life. He reflects on its critical contribution to the common good of the communities in which Christians live and work.

Knoblauch, Jörg and Jürg Opprecht. 2005. Kingdom Companies: How 24 Executives Around the Globe Serve Jesus Christ through their Businesses Kingdom Companies. Minneapolis, MN: River City Press.

The authors interview owners of 24 medium-sized companies worldwide run by CEOs who consider themselves “economic missionaries.” The book is strong on evangelism and light on theology.

Kotter, John P. 1996. Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

The author examines the efforts of more than 100 companies to remake themselves into better competitors. He identifies the most common mistakes leaders and managers make in attempting to create change. He offers an eight-step process to overcome those obstacles and carry out the firm's agenda: establishing a greater sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing a vision and strategy, communicating the change vision, empowering others to act, creating short-term wins, consolidating gains and producing even more change, and institutionalizing new approaches in the future. 

Kouzes, James M. and Barry Z. Posner. 2012. The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/John Wiley & Sons.

This study, based on more than 25 years of research, examines leadership as a relationship that must be nurtured, and most importantly, that can be learned. The authors interviewed ordinary leaders, asking them about their peak leadership experiences. Consequently, the authors conclude that good leaders: (1) model the way by knowing their values while also affirming the shared values of the group; (2) inspire a shared vision by imagining exciting and ennobling possibilities; (3) challenge the process by searching for opportunities by looking outward for innovative ways to improve; (4) enable others to act by fostering collaboration and strengthening others by increasing self-determination and developing competence; and (5) encourage the heart by showing appreciation for individual excellence and creating a spirit of community.

Kuyper, Abraham. 2013. Advice for Christian Engagement in Government. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian's Library.

This book was originally the campaign manifesto of Kuyper’s political party. Kuyper lays out a general overview of the relationship between Christianity and social order in light of the dilemmas faced by modern society. The author addresses a variety of economic topics, and although the policy particulars have changed over time, the principles will still be of interest.

Kuyper, Abraham, Jordan J. Ballor, Stephen J. Grabill, and Nelson D. Kloosterman. 2011. Wisdom and Wonder: Common Grace in Science and Art. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian's Library.

The author provides a brief summary of his views on the relationship between the church and human civilization, particularly as manifested in science and art. Kuyper outlines how God’s “common grace” infuses human civilizational activities with experiences of beauty, goodness and truth, and how Christians can participate in these activities without losing their gospel distinctiveness.

Lai, Patrick. 2005. Tentmaking: Business as Mission. Colorado Springs, CO: Authentic Media.

Those unfamiliar with the world of tentmaking will find this text a valuable introduction. Designed to be a manual, this book is more than just an overview of questions and issues; it serves as an in-depth reference for existing tentmakers. 

Lai, Patrick. 2015. Business for Transformation: Getting Started. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library.
This book answers the question, “How does one start a business that transforms communities of unreached peoples?” The author answers by explaining how to start a business that engages unreached people for Jesus’s sake. He goes beyond his first book, Tentmaking: The Life and Work of Business as Missions, by asserting that the world is changing fast and that the way the church does missions needs to change as well. He argues that Business for Transformation (B4T) is the future of missions, not simply to get visas but to bring hope via jobs, since hope is brought through knowledge of Jesus Christ.

Lavoy, Deb. 2012. “Social Enterprise ROI: Measuring the Immeasurable.” CMSWire. Accessed March 5, 2016.

The author expresses her frustration with society’s need for measurement metrics for social enterprise projects. She asserts that metrics like return on investment (ROI) are irrelevant because they are unmeasurable, but yet there still needs to be some way to demonstrate the efficacy of social approaches to business challenges.

Leffler, Ido and Lance Kalish. 2013. Get Big Fast and Do More Good: Start Your Business, Make It Huge, and Change the World. Boston, MA: New Harvest/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

The authors advocate that successful modern entrepreneurs should follow their own example of bootstrapping a business idea. In doing so, the entrepreneur can build a strong, resilient, financially stable business while maintaining solid principles, investing in meaningful business relationships, giving back to the community, still making it home in time for dinner, and having a sense of humor.

Leiserowitz, Anthony A., Robert W. Kates, and Thomas M. Parris. 2005. “Do Global Attitudes and Behaviors Support Sustainable Development?” Environment 47(9):22-38.

The authors argue that sustainable development recognizes that a transition to global sustainability—meeting human needs and reducing hunger and poverty while maintaining the life-support systems of the planet—will require changes in human values, attitudes, and behaviors.

Levasseur, Robert E. 2004. “People Skills: Change Management Tools—The Modern Leadership Model.” Interfaces 34(2):147-148.

This is the third in a series of columns about some of the most effective models, methods, and processes of Organization Development (OD). The author argues that OD is a discipline that offers much to the practitioner determined to help clients solve real-world problems. This article’s focus on praxis makes it the most relevant in the series.

Lewis, Jonathan. 1996. Working Your Way to the Nations: A Guide to Effective Tentmaking. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity.

This book is a study guide that helps aspiring Christians prepare to live cross-culturally in a profession or business, to be “tentmakers” or get involved in business as mission.

Lingane, Alison and Sara Olsen. 2004. “Guidelines for Social Return on Investment.” California Management Review 46(3):116-135.

The authors present ten standard guidelines for the calculation of social return on investment (SROI) quantitative summaries of companies’ social and environmental impacts, actual or projected. SROI is a technique for summarizing the value of companies’ environmental and social benefits in terms of a dollar value equivalent. Using data and examples from 88 actual business plans, this article discusses common errors in such assessments and makes recommendations for standardizing them. The aim is to make SROI metrics more comprehensive, credible, and useful for entrepreneurs, managers, and analysts. Such a common framework would also enable investors to compare the social impact of different firms within the same industry.

Little, Jeri. 2009. Merchant to Romania: Business as Missions in Post-Communist Eastern Europe. Leominster, MA: Day One.

The author is a young entrepreneur from the white-collar business world of Orange County, California, who felt the Lord was calling him to move to Romania to use his business skills in missions. The book tells how his organization, Church Resource Ministries, birthed a variety of business enterprises in Romania.

Longenecker, Bruce W. and Kelly D. Liebengood. 2009. Engaging Economics: New Testament Scenarios and Early Christian Reception. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

This book is an anthology that gives an overview of a number of questions about the economic context of the New Testament. It connects New Testament texts to their historical and cultural contexts. Subjects include: (1) “The Economics of Humility: The Rich and the Humble in James;” (2) “Critiquing Rome's Economy: Revelation and Its Reception in the Apostolic Fathers;” (3) “Is God Paul's Patron? The Economy of Patronage in Pauline Theology;” and (4) “By Almsgiving and Faith Sins are Purged? The Theological Underpinnings of Early Christian Care for the Poor.”

Lupton, Robert D. 2011. Toxic Charity: How Churches and Charities Hurt Those They Help. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

The author shows how one Christian anti-poverty ministry in Atlanta came to recognize that its efforts to help the poor were doing more harm than good and undertook extensive reforms. Christmas toy giveaways became a low-priced toy shop; the food pantry and clothing ministry became a low-cost restaurant and clothing store employing poor people. Lupton emphasizes how systems of economic exchange recognize mutual dignity in a way that indiscriminate one-way giving does not.

Mackey, John and Rajendra Sisodia. 2014. Conscious Capitalism: Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review.

The authors, the founder of Whole Foods and a business professor, present their vision for reimagining capitalism and a blueprint for a new system for doing business that is increasingly cooperative and humane, and builds a positive future. Their movement, hosted at, focuses on creating value for all stakeholders, including customers, employees, suppliers, investors, society, and the environment.

Malone, Kelly. 2014. “Broadening the Tent: Expanding the Strategic use of Tent-making in Cross-cultural Mission.” Missiology: An International Review 42(2):195-206.

The author observes that “tentmaking” is often used to gain access to nations that do not allow missionaries. This article provides biblical, missiological, and practical rationale for the use of tentmaking in nations that are legally open to missionary work but culturally closed to the gospel. It begins with consideration of the Pauline use of tentmaking as a model for mission and then takes into account financial considerations, the need for training, and the strategic development of tentmaking as an international movement.

Mangalwadi, Vishal and Ruth Mangalwadi. 1999. The Legacy of William Carey: A Model for the Transformation of a Culture. Wheaton, IL: Crossway.

The book tells the story of William Carey, an industrialist, economist, reformer, media pioneer, educator, botanist, and Christian missionary. While Carey is often thought of as “the father of modern missions,” he had a tremendously broad influence upon Indian society and was concerned not only with the salvation of individuals, but their social, economic, environmental, moral, and spiritual lives as well.

Marcoux, Alexi M. 2000. “Business Ethics Gone Wrong,” Cato Policy Report 22(3). Accessed March 11, 2015,

The author attacks stakeholder theory. Consistent with the views of Nobel Laureate Milton Friedman, the author argues that the very nature of stakeholder theory is immoral and can only lead to disastrous results for all involved.

Markiewicz, Mark. 1999. “Business as Mission: How Two Grocers Changed the Course of a Nation.” In the Workplace. Accessed March 2, 2016.

The author tells the story of Arthur Guinness and Jesse Boot, two individuals with entrepreneurial gifts to change society and to see churches and missions grow in Britain at a time of revival at the turn of the nineteenth century .

Marshall, R. Scott. 2011. “Conceptualizing the International For-profit Social Entrepreneur.” Journal of Business Ethics 98(2):183-198.

This article looks at social entrepreneurs that operate for-profit enterprises internationally. The author asserts that international for-profit social entrepreneurs (IFPSE) are a unique type of individual because of their mindsets, opportunity recognition, social networks, and outcomes. This article develops a definition of IFPSE, builds a proposed model of IFPSE, and utilizes case studies to examine the proposed model.

Marques, Joan. 2010. Joy at Work, Work at Joy: Living and Working Mindfully Every Day. Fawnskin, CA: Personhood.

The author’s thesis is that work is one of the ways humanity honors or glorifies God. The author allots one page of the book for each day of the year, providing a daily guiding thought, an action to try to accomplish, and an idea to ponder, sometimes in the form of a short story. The author believes that these daily steps help turn a workplace into a more joyful, gratifying, and productive space that helps people find “joy at work,” which she defines as: (1) acceptance; (2) togetherness; (3) interconnectedness; and (4) mutuality as means to a happy, positive day.

Martin, Roger L., Sally Osberg, and Arianna Huffington. 2015. Getting Beyond Better: How Social Entrepreneurship Works. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review.

The authors analyze the theory of social entrepreneurship, moving through history to contemporary society. The authors then lay out a four-part framework for understanding how successful social entrepreneurs actually produce transformative change. These methods are: (1) understanding the world; (2) envisioning a new future; (3) building a model for change; and (4) scaling the solution.

McCloskey, Deirdre. 2001. The Genealogy of Postmodernism, Postmodernism, Economics, and Knowledge. London, UK: Routledge.

The author draws a distinction between postmodernism in economics and in knowledge. She challenges the belief in the progressivity and modernity of economics, rejecting claims that science and mathematics provide the only models for the structure of economic knowledge and ultimately asserts that humanity is living in a postmodern era.

McCloskey, Deirdre. 2006. The Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

The author provides an historical analysis of the cause(s) of the Industrial Revolution, concluding that the extension of the social recognition of dignity, and therefore rights, from the aristocracy to the bourgeoisie was the essential catalyst.

McLennan, Jason F. and Mary Adam Thomas. 2011. Zugunruhe: The Inner Migration to Profound Environmental Change. Bainbridge Island, WA: Ecotone.

The authors argue that zugunruhe, an ethology concept used to describe anxious behavior in migratory animals, especially in birds during the normal migration period, is emerging in people yearning for a sustainable future. This book shows how humanity can engage the most frightening issues of the day, partially through social enterprise, which can lead to revolutionary change for the betterment of people and planet.

McLoughlin, Mike. 2000. “Back to the Future of Missions: The Case for Marketplace Ministry.” Vocatio 2000:1-6.

The author argues that the future of missions is to look back to the past, namely, St. Paul’s work at a tentmaker. In doing so, he believes that one can remove barriers between the church and the business world, empowering Christians in business who are realizing that God can use their careers and entrepreneurial skills to spread the gospel in innovative ways.

Michelin, François, Ivan Levaï, and Yves Messarovitch. 2003. And Why Not? Morality and Business. Lanham, MD: Lexington.

François Michelin, the former managing partner of Michelin Group, shares theological reflections on the nature of business, his management philosophy, his deeply-felt Christian faith, and how he applied it to the marketplace. 

Miles, Toby. 2013. 7 Reasons Tentmaking Businesses Fail: Lessons Learned in Business as Mission. Seattle, WA: Amazon Kindle.

The author analyzes seven reasons tentmaking businesses fail: faulty foundations; lack of work ethic; financial feebleness; no experience; poor planning; bad marketing; and poor strategic planning. He asserts that these are issues that the tentmaker can avoid and are not a repudiation of tentmaking theory itself. 

Miller, David W. 2007. God at Work: The History and Promise of the Faith at Work Movement. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

The author outlines and analyzes various Christian efforts to develop a biblical perspective on work in the twentieth century. This lengthy and detailed book covers the history of faith at work, past, present, and future. Additionally, this book explores a theology of work and its practical application. The author’s perspective is that of an evangelical analyzing how evangelicals integrate their faith with their work.

Moore, Russell. 2004. The Kingdom of Christ: The New Evangelical Perspective. Wheaton, IL: Crossway.

The author offers the history of evangelical debates over ecclesiology, eschatology, and soteriology, arguing that these debates have hindered the emergence of a unified evangelical witness on public issues because evangelicals lack a shared understanding of how the church relates to the world. However, recent trends toward moderation and dialogue on these issues hold promise for change.

Morse, Jennifer Roback. 2001. Love and Economics: Why the Laissez-Faire Family Doesn't Work. Dallas, TX: Spence.

The author, a Christian economist, offers an extensive argument with supporting data about why a flourishing economy requires, but cannot by itself produce, strong traditional families.

Mouw, Richard J. 1980. Called to Holy Worldliness. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress.

Mouw maintains that humanity’s daily life and work, even in the secular world, can, and should, be holy.

Mouw, Richard J. 1983. When the Kings Come Marching In: Isaiah and the New Jerusalem. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Mouw argues that work will be among those things that are brought in with a renewed purpose of glorifying the Lamb in the New Jerusalem.

Munk, Nina. 2013. The Idealist: Jeffrey Sachs and the Quest to End Poverty. New York, NY: Doubleday.
This book is best in conversation with Jeffrey Sachs. The author argues that Sachs’ plan is mostly hubris, deeply flawed, and his idea of giving money away is neither easy nor will eliminate poverty.

Murray, Charles. 2013. Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010. New York, NY: Three Rivers.

The author analyzes the central problems facing white American civilization, suggesting that the upper and lower socioeconomic halves of the country are being pulled apart by a variety of forces. The author argues that the core virtues of American society—work, marriage, church, and community—are damaged but not broken or destroyed among the upper socioeconomic half, while they are in freefall among the bottom half.

Mycoskie, Blake. 2011. Start Something That Matters. New York, NY: Spiegel & Grau.

The author, the founder of TOM’S Shoes, argues that people do not have to choose between earning a living, pursuing their passions, and working for inspirational causes. He argues that “you can find profit, passion, and meaning all at once—right now” and provides the narrative of his company as a template for doing so.

Nelson, Tom. 2011. Work Matters: Connecting Sunday Worship to Monday Work. Wheaton, IL: Crossway.

The author offers an introduction to the spiritual significance of work in everyday life. He is a pastor who writes from experience, having delivered this message in his church. The clear calling to put faith/work integration into the life of the local church is a strength of the book.

Nichols, James. 2010. Salience of Faith: The Role of Religious Values and Practices on Strategic Decision-Making of Christian Business Owners Doctoral Dissertation. Anderson, Indiana: Anderson University.

The author examines whether Christian business owners whose religious faith is of high importance to them employ their faith when making decisions that stand to have significant impact on their businesses. He concudes that faith is important to them, although not controlling.

Nischan, Michel and Mary Goodbody. 2010. Sustainably Delicious: Making The World a Better Place, One Recipe at A Time. New York, NY: Rodale.

The author, a chef, creates sophisticated and modern food by utilizing historic food tenets: (1) use what is readily available; (2) celebrate variety; (3) respect the land; and (4) eschew waste. The book argues that the author’s approach to social enterprise proves that the most satisfying food is created when people engage in a traditional farm-to-table economic and environmental legacy. 

Noell, Edd. 2013. Economic Growth: Unleashing the Potential of Human Flourishing. Washington, DC: AEI.

The author defends the “goodness” of economic growth against perspectives that argue growth is morally bad for society.

North, Douglass C., John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

The authors argue that the key development in the modern world that made the Industrial Revolution possible was a transition from the “limited access order” that had prevailed in all times and places until modernity to an “open access order.”

Novak, Michael. 1996. Business as a Calling: Work and the Examined Life. New York, NY: The Free Press.

The author argues, as the title suggests, that business is an actual calling from God and that it is a profession worthy of a person’s highest ideals and aspirations and fraught with moral possibilities both of great good and of great evil. The author gives an overview of issues such as downsizing, the tradeoffs that must sometimes be faced between profits and human rights, and the pitfalls of philanthropy. He also examines the daily questions of how an honest day’s work contributes to the good of many people, both close at hand and far away. The book makes a number of claims that seem difficult to accept as fact, such as that people in business are more religious than the population as a whole and that businesspeople are not materialistic or unethical.

Olasky, Marvin. 1994. The Tragedy of American Compassion. New York, NY: Regnery.

The author documents how, in the twentieth century, the holistic model of care for the poor, rooted in historic Christian teaching, was replaced, both in the church and in society at large, with a handout-only model that has created a debilitating dependency of the poor on charitable organizations.

Packer, J.I. 1990. “The Christian’s Purpose in Business” in Biblical Principles and Business: The Practice, 16-25. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress.

The author asserts that entrepreneurship can be a vocational calling, but one’s first calling needs to be as a disciple of Christ.

Pedersen, Esben R. 2006. “Making Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Operable: How Companies Translate Stakeholder Dialogue into Practice.” Business and Society Review 111(2):137-163.

The author argues that since the mid-1990s, a large number of scholars and practitioners have adopted the discourse of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. Yet CSR remains an ambiguous and much-debated construct and difficult c to quantify. In this article, the author attempts to do so by focusing on stakeholder dialogue.

Placher, William C., ed. 2005. Callings: Twenty Centuries of Christian Wisdom on Vocation. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

The author presents collected readings on the idea of “calling” from the last two thousand years.

Pollard, C. William. 1996. The Soul of the Firm. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Pollard’s book, like Novak and Grudem’s works, is considered classic in the faith at work movement. Based on his experiences as Chairman of the ServiceMaster Company, it is now dated. In addition, like those two other classics, it was written by a baby-boomer to Christians with a very selective view of the business world. The author is “old school” and tells a simple story that one might hear now from Chick-fil-A or at a Full Gospel Businessman meeting.

Pope Benedict XVI. 2009. Caritas in Veritate. Encyclical Letter of Pope Benedict XVI on Integral Human Development in Charity and Truth. Accessed March 16, 2016.

This encyclical reflects Pope Benedict XVI’s belief that love and truth are essential elements of an effective response to the problems associated with global development. The encyclical is addressed to all people of good will, but included specific sections directed at political leaders, business leaders, religious leaders, financiers, and aid agencies. He concludes that for economic and social change to occur on a global scale, all economic actors need to be informed by ethics as well as the profit motive.

Pope Pius XI. 1931. Quadragesimo Anno. Encyclical Letter of Pope Pius XI on Reconstruction of the Social Order. Accessed March 16, 2016. xi_enc_19310515_quadragesimo-anno_en.html.

This encyclical reflects Pope Pius XI’s assertion that it is wrong to take from individuals what they can accomplish by their own initiative and industry and give it to the community. The message affirms that it is equally as wrong to assign to a greater higher association what lesser and subordinate organizations can do. He concludes that every social activity is to help humanity and never destroy or hurt it.

Prahalad, C. K. 2006. The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School.

This book studies how to profitably serve the world's poorest people and help them escape from poverty. The author argues that developed, free-market countries achieved their success through private-sector innovation. He avoids the political debates around foreign aid and builds a solid foundation through which for-profit corporations can alleviate poverty, empower women, provide affordable healthcare, and improve government transparency in the poorest of nations.

Provis, Chris. 2000. “Ethics, Deception and Labor Negotiation.” Journal of Business Ethics 28(4):145-158.

The author examines bluffing within the context of labor negotiations and concludes that it is unethical behavior. Bluffing, he argues, is deception and therefore unethical, regardless of whether it occurs during or outside of the negotiation process.


Quattro, Scott A. 2012. “Is Business as Mission a Flawed Concept? A Reformed Christian Perspective on the BAM Movement.” The Journal of Biblical Integration in Business 15(1):80-87.

The author pushes back on the popular notion that BAM is an academic discipline worthy of study and argues that the Great Commission and church planting go hand-in-hand with business enterprise.

Radtke, Dick. 2005. “The Triumph of Right Over Wrong.” Credit Union Magazine June 2005:32-37.

The author argues that the credit union industry has used the advent of Sarbanes-Oxley to reinvent the industry’s code of conduct. He argues that even though the credit union industry is largely exempt from many of the Sarbanes-Oxley provisions, many members, such as those in Georgia, have gone beyond the legal requirements and created specific codes of conduct in the area of governance and oversight.

Richards, Jay W. 2009. Money, Greed, and God: Why Capitalism is the Solution and Not the Problem. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

The author argues against eight inadequate approaches to economics among Christians. The author’s primary argument is that the social system of economic activity is intrinsically good, despite the moral failures that disrupt it. The author asserts that capitalism fosters creativity and growth within the context of the Christian faith, based on hard work, honesty, and trust. 

Ridley-Duff, Rory. 2008. “Social Enterprise as a Socially Rational Business,” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research 14(5):291- 312.

This article discusses multiple conceptions of social enterprise (including non-profit, more-than-profit, and cooperative models) and argues that social enterprise represents a range of business practices rather than a single model. The author argues that social capital is a tool for measuring social impact, similar to understanding financial success through financial capital. He proposes that social enterprise is “socially rational” because it integrates social and economic capital into its structure, which resembles how humans actually function and thrive.

Robinson, Jerry W. and Gary P. Green. 2011. Introduction to Community Development: Theory, Practice, and Service-Learning. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.

This text is a solid and progressive primer on community and economic development that offers both a theoretical and practical introduction to development. It provides an overview for those unfamiliar with the concepts as well as specifics for the professional already working in the development field. 

Rotheroe, Neil and Adam Richards. 2007. “Social Return on Investment and Social Enterprise: Transparent Accountability for Sustainable Development.” Social Enterprise Journal 3(1):31-48.

The authors examine the concept of social return on investment (SROI) in a case study on the Furniture Resource Centre Group (FRC Group), a social enterprise based in Liverpool, UK, that provides quality affordable furniture for low‐income households. The authors conclude that the SROI technique demonstrated many qualities of sustainability and that, with stakeholder inclusiveness pivotal to the innovative process, it allows for truly connected thinking that reveals advancements in sustainable development.

Rothschild, Steve. 2012. The Non Nonprofit: For-Profit Thinking for Nonprofit Success. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

The author advocates for-profit thinking for nonprofit organizations. He argues that nonprofit leaders know that solving pervasive social problems requires passion and creativity as well as tangible results and that they should apply to the realm of nonprofits the same business principles that drive the world's best companies.

Rueschemeyer, Dietrich. 2009. “Chapter I. Analytical Tools for Social and Political Research.” In Usable Theory: Analytic Tools for Social and Political Research. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

The author, a professor of sociology, offers an introduction to theory in general and usable theory in particular. He demonstrates the importance of theory in social and political research and argues that integrated sets of confirmed and general propositions about the social world can be possible, which could be helpful in modeling and predicting change.

Rundle, Steve. 2004. “Corporate Social Responsibility in a Globalizing World: What’s a Christian Executive to Do?” Business and Professional Ethics Journal 23(4):171-183.

The author examines the commonly held belief that globalization is worsening the modern sense of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Although the author recognizes this as a problem, he focuses on the new global opportunities for CSR, as globalization allows small businesses a wider reach.

Rundle, Steve and Tom Steffen. 2003. Great Commission Companies: The Emerging Role of Business in Missions. Downers Grove, IL: IVP.

This book advocates the convergence of business and missions (i.e., the Great Commission Company). The authors believe Christians can intentionally create businesses in strategic locations, pursuing profits while remaining unabashedly Christian in their purpose.

Russell, Mark L., ed. 2010. Our Souls at Work: How Great Leaders Live Their Faith in the Global Marketplace. Boise, ID: Russell Media.

In this anthology, the authors argue for a sustainable mission paradigm that integrates work and ministry life. The authors attempt to show how to live for God and avoid the traps of success by sharing insights from over thirty top-tier leaders and CEOs, including Steve Reinemund (former CEO of Pepsi), John Tyson (chair and former CEO of Tyson Foods), Mo Anderson (of Keller Williams Realty), and Dennis Bakke (founder of Applied Energy Services).

Russell, Mark L. 2010. The Missional Entrepreneur: Principles and Practices for Business as Mission. Birmingham, AL: New Hope.

The author examines business as mission to discover the most effective principles and practices of this movement. The book includes both theological reflections and contemporary case studies and is helpful in documenting the BAM genre.

Sachs, Jeffrey. 2006. The End of Poverty. New York, NY: Penguin.

Sachs, a professor at Harvard, offers a brief economic history of the world and the rich-poor divide, along with contextual understandings of development economics. A quarter of the book details his plan to eliminate extreme poverty from the world by 2025, involving the restructuring of cultures, moralities, institutions, and economic systems. This book is best in conversation with Nina Munk.

Sauer, Corinne and Robert M. Sauer. 2007. Judaism, Markets, and Capitalism: Separating Myth from Reality. Grand Rapids, MI: Acton Institute.

The authors examine the relationships among socialism, capitalism, and Judaism. They assert that there are five basic axioms of Jewish economic theory: (1) participation in the creative process; (2) protection of private property; (3) the accumulation of wealth; (4) caring for the needy; and (5) limited government.

Scannone, Juan Carlos. 1976. Teologia de la Liberacion y Praxis Popular: Aportes Criticos para una Teologia de la Liberacion. Salamanca, Spain: Ediciones Sigueme.

The author, a Jesuit and former professor of Pope Francis, develops his idea of public theology, or theology of the people. In the author’s context, “the people” reference poor, or at least common, people. This text resembles liberation theology in that it uses the method of “seeing-judging-acting,” connecting historical praxis and theological reflection, and makes use of the social sciences and humanities as intermediaries. But it favors a cultural-historical analysis comparable to the socio-structural Marxist type and is a form of thinking that emerged in the immediate post-conciliar period.

Schein, Andrew. 2006. “The Vision of Deuteronomy 15 with Regard to Poverty, Socialism, and Capitalism.” The Journal of Markets and Morality 9(2):251-259.

The author argues that economic growth in the twenty-first century offers the possibility to eliminate extreme poverty in the world. He contends that this goal does not contradict the vision of Deuteronomy 15:11 (which maintains that poverty will always remain in the world) because that verse should be understood as referring to relative poverty. On the other hand, the eradication of extreme poverty in the world conforms to the vision of Deuteronomy 15:4, in which there can be no poor from an absolute perspective. Thus, the vision of Deuteronomy 15 is a world in which relative poverty, but not absolute poverty, exists. This vision is in harmony with the capitalist system, which promotes economic growth but does not aim for absolute equality.

Schneider, John R. 2002. The Good of Affluence: Seeking God in a Culture of Wealth. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

The author argues that economic flourishing is part of God’s shalom and that wealth creation is a good part of God’s created order. The author exegetes sections of the Bible to offer a portrait of how humanity can live in a godly way without insisting that everyone become poor.

Schwartz, Beverly. 2012. Rippling How Social Entrepreneurs Spread Innovation Throughout the World. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

The author, based on her experiences working with hundreds of the world's top social “change leaders,” presents a model for change based on five proven principles that any individual leader or organization can apply to bring about deep, lasting, and systematic change. These principles involve (1) restructuring industry norms; (2) changing market dynamics; (3) using market forces to create social value; (4) advancing full citizenship; and (5) cultivating empathy.

Seebeck, Doug and Timothy Stoner. 2009. My Business, My Mission: Fighting Poverty Through Partnerships. Grand Rapids, MI: Partners Worldwide.

The authors tell the story of Partners Worldwide, a Christian ministry that seeks to link North American businesspeople with entrepreneurs in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. They show how business can financially and spiritually change the lives of people in the most impoverished nations on earth.

Sherman, Amy L. 2011. Kingdom Calling: Vocational Stewardship for the Common Good. Westmont, IL: InterVarsity.

The author provides a theological framework connecting work, business, and the economy to the gospel, the Kingdom, the mission of the church and the shalom of communities.

Silvoso, Ed. 2002. Anointed for Business: How to Use Your Influence in the Marketplace to Change the World. Ventura, CA: Regal.

The author rebuts the idea that labor for profit and worship of God is a new concept. He shows how the early church founders were mostly community leaders and highly successful businesspeople and that the writing of the Gospels was entrusted to Luke, a medical doctor, Matthew, a retired tax collector, Mark, the manager of a family trust, and so on. The book advocates people in the workplace to rise to their God-appointed positions of spiritual authority.

Silvoso, Ed. 2007. Transformation: Change the Marketplace and Change the World. Ventura, CA: Regal.

The author asserts that God loves humanity and has a unique blueprint for human lives that humans must discover. The book synthesizes contemporary stories and biblical anecdotes with practical advice. The author demonstrates how God intervenes in human affairs today to transform people and nations. He also shares five critical paradigms for transformation that are pivotal for change: (1) discipling nations; (2) reclaiming the marketplace; (3) looking at work as worship; (4) becoming salt and light; and (5) eliminating poverty.

Smedes, Lewis B. 1995. Mere Morality: What God Expects from Ordinary People. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

The author, a theologian, examines the five of the Ten Commandments that direct humanity to respect other people (e.g., “You shall not steal”) and how each of these commandments pinpoints the moral nucleus of one sector of life in community: (1) family; (2) marriage; (3) property; (4) communication; and (5) the preservation of life. The author applies these sectors to three questions: (1) What does God command us to do?; (2) Why does he command this?; and (3) How can we obey this in the ambiguities and conflicts of real life? 

Smith, Philip and Eric Thurman, E. 2007. A Billion Bootstraps: Microcredit, Barefoot Banking, and the Business Solution for Ending Poverty. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

The authors show how and why microcredit is the world's most powerful poverty-fighting movement and an unbeatable investment for charitable donations. This book works best in conversation with Mohammed Yunus. 

Spear, Roger. 2006. “Social Entrepreneurship: A Different Model?” International Journal of Social Economics 33(5/6):399-410.

The author develops a framework that analyzes both economic and social entrepreneurship. It develops a behavioral approach to defining social entrepreneurship, focusing on the creation of a social enterprise (co‐operative, mutual, or voluntary) organization.

Stackhouse, Max L. 1995. On Moral Business: Classical and Contemporary Resources for Ethics in Economic Life. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

The author sees work as a divine calling and views corporations like humanity, no more or less fallen. Consequently, like humanity, business can be a force of change in the world. 

Stark, Rodney. 2007. The Victory of Reason: How Christianity Led to Freedom, Capitalism, and Western Success. New York, NY: Random House.

The author traces the history of capitalism from its roots in twelfth-century Italy through its development into modernity. The author argues that capitalism arose from Christian commitments to the dignity of the individual person and the power of image-bearing human beings to produce economic growth through their work.

Steffen, Tom and M. Barnett, eds. 2006. Business as Mission: From Impoverished to Empowered. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library.

The book describes how, in 2005, the Evangelical Missiological Society devoted their regional and annual conferences to the subject of business as mission. This book is a collection of resulting essays on the subject. Of particular note is an essay entitled “Distinctives and Challenges of Business as Mission” by the book’s lead authors, C. Neal Johnson and Steve Rundle.

Stevens, R. Paul. 2001. Seven Days of Faith: Every Day Alive with God. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress.

The author advocates for collapsing the sacred from the secular and making every day and activity honoring to God. The chapter on work offers a good introduction to this subject.

Stevens, R. Paul. 2012. Work Matters: Lessons from Scripture. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

The author analyzes why the connectedness of work and faith is so important by engaging Old and New Testaments passages that explore the theological meaning of every type of work. For example, Stevens uses story of Joseph, whose vocation protected not just Egypt but God's chosen people as well.

Strong, Michael. 2009. Be the Solution: How Entrepreneurs and Conscious Capitalists Can Solve All the World's Problems. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

The author advocates the erasure of distinction between business and doing good. He asserts that all those who engage in business should be committed to a deeper purpose and that all those committed to doing good should be entrepreneurial and enterprising. If this were the case, he argues, a world of seven billion such people could solve all the world's problems. He asserts that humanity looks for meaning and purpose in their lives as employees, consumers, and investors. More and more people have more than enough material goods and are increasingly interested in the qualities of the goods they buy, in the experiences associated with the services they provide and buy, in the way the companies they buy from act as citizens, and in self-actualization—rising up Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

Suter, Heinz and Marco Gmur. 1997. Business Power for God’s Purpose. Greng, Switzerland: VKG Publishing.

The authors explore how business power can be used for God’s purpose. They include sections on biblical teaching, historical examples, contemporary tentmaking, and ethics, before exploring some applications, principles, and recommendations for using business in the task of world evangelization.

Thompson, John, Geoff Alvy, and Ann Lees. 2000. “Social Entrepreneurship: A New Look at the People and the Potential.” Management Decision 38(5):328-338.

The authors assert that though entrepreneurship is seen as the driver of capitalism and economic activity, when economic decline has adversely affected local communities, those communities are likely to need both economic and social regeneration. The article advocates that business entrepreneurs need social entrepreneurs, people who realize where there is an opportunity to satisfy some unmet need that the state welfare system will not or cannot meet, who gather the necessary resources and use these to “make a difference.”

Townsend, David M. and Timothy A. Hart. 2008. “Perceived Institutional Ambiguity and the Choice of Organizational Form in Social Entrepreneurial Ventures.” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 3(4):685-700.

The authors believe that social entrepreneurship (SE) is emerging as a common approach to meeting social needs, but in the early part of the twenty-first century SE founders appear to be organizing under both for-profit and nonprofit organizational forms to engage in essentially the same activities. This article investigates that lack of consistency regarding the choice of organizational form by examining two possible explanations: a difference in motivational goals among social entrepreneurs, and perceived ambiguity regarding trends in core dimensions of the institutional environment.

Tsai, Kellee S. 2007. Capitalism Without Democracy: The Private Sector in Contemporary China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

The author focuses on the activities and aspirations of the private entrepreneurs driving China's economic growth. The author asserts that most of these individuals are members of the Communist Party and believe the system works for them.

Tunehag, Mats. 2013. Your Kingdom Come, Your Will Be Done…In Business: Biblical Foundations for Business as Mission. A. Hang Dong, Thailand: BAM Global Think Tank. Accessed March 2, 2016.

This report details the Biblical Models of Transformation Through Business Practices Issue Group (BMIG) focused on developing a biblically sound and practical understanding of business. The group examines identifying principles, models, and practices of business that give expression to its role in advancing God’s purpose or mission in the world.

van der Rian, Merwe, Pierre Berthon, and Leyland Pitt. 2003. “Are Excellent Companies Ethical? Evidence from an Industrial Setting.” Corporate Reputation Review 5(4):343-355.

The authors examine the relationship between ethics and excellence in business. They conclude that excellent corporate performance is usually accompanied by a proper ethical environment within the corporation, but that the reverse is not true: ethical behavior by firms does not necessarily lead to excellent financial performance.

Van Duzer, Jeffrey B. 2010. Why Business Matters to God: And What Still Needs to be Fixed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity.

The author connects business both to a theological framework and to Niebuhr’s famous five-point typology for integrating Christ and culture. His main arguments are that: (1) the material world matters to God; (2) humanity is called to steward God's creation; (3) human beings are made in the image of God and are made to live within limits; (4) God delights in variety; and (5) the garden was incomplete.

Van Engen, Charles E. and Jude Tiersma. 1994. God so Loves the City: Seeking a Theology for Urban Mission. Monrovia, CA: MARC.

Van Engen states the purpose of this book is “to explore ways to integrate theology, urban studies, and contextualization in a theologically informed, holistic, and transformational theology of mission.” This anthology concludes two truths: (1) that God loves the city and the people in it, but hates the sin in the city; and (2) that city life can be good and communities can grow and thrive.

Van Engen, Charles E. 1991. God's Missionary People: Rethinking the Purpose of the Local Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

The author, a leading missiologist, argues that there are not churches per se, but rather one Church that is the only earthly witness for Christ. The Church’s mission is to spread “the knowledge of the rule of the King” throughout the world. Therefore, the author argues, every local church should be God's missionary people, reaching the whole world for the lost. By the same logic, every member of the Church engaged in business should do the same in their business endeavors and lifestyle.

Veith, Jr., Gene Edward. 2011. God at Work: Your Christian Vocation in All of Life. Wheaton, IL: Crossway.

The author advocates for a closer identification between the local congregation and the universal church. He works through the realities of church life and denominational organizations before challenging church leaders to redefine ecclesiology. The author examines the doctrine of calling, or vocation, arguing that it can be the organizing principle of an entire Christian life.

Vickers, Ian. 2010. “Social Enterprise and the Environment: A Review of the Literature.” Working Paper 22, Birmingham, UK: Third Sector Research Centre.

The author asserts that there is more known about social enterprise and the environment than is sometimes acknowledged. Social enterprise is an ill-defined concept, with socially and environmentally motivated ventures taking place under a wide variety of organizational forms, including within and/or spanning private and public sectors. In this paper, the author explores the published literature and concludes that it affirms the ongoing importance of the “green social economy.”

Volf, Miroslav. 1991. Work in the Spirit: Toward a Theology of Work. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

The author explores work through the lens of the Holy Spirit. The author writes that all human work is done in accordance with the will of God and that it should be humanity’s privilege to do the work that the Holy Spirit has gifted us to do.

Von Bergen, C.W. and William T. Mawer. 2005. “Faith at Work.” Southern Law Journal 185:205-218.

The authors write about the inappropriateness of bringing religion into the workplace for most of the twentieth century in the US, called the “Sunday-Monday gap.” Nevertheless, this gap is changing in the twenty-first century. The authors say that employers want to balance both employees’ and the company’s rights to express their religious beliefs and values, while not subjecting other employees to harassment or discrimination on the basis of faith.

Wagner, C. Peter. 2006. The Church in the Workplace. Ventura, CA: Regal Books.

The author believes that the church needs to reclaim all the spheres of influence of society that Satan has “stolen” from humanity, one of which is the workplace. A former professor at Fuller Theological Seminary, the author writes from the perspective of a Pentecostal pastor rather than an academic in this work.

Weber, Max. 1958. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York, NY: Scribner.

The author implies that there is correlation between faith and work. He would argue that the evangelical Christian’s good works are done in anticipation that non-evangelicals will be drawn to the faith because of them. He writes that salvation is not gained through work, but rather is affirmed through it.

Wehner, Peter, and Arthur C. Brooks. 2010. Wealth and Justice: The Morality of Democratic Capitalism. Washington, DC: AEI.

The authors argue for moral basis of democratic capitalism as a social system. They conclude that democratic capitalism is ultimately based on the view that human nature is both good and bad, over against romantic optimism and cynical pessimism, both of which end in dehumanizing social systems.

Westaway, Kyle. 2011. “New Legal Structures for ‘Social Entrepreneurs.’” Wall Street Journal, December 12, 2011.

The author defines “social entrepreneurs” as individuals who create companies that seek profit but also are devoted to a social purpose to create long-term, sustainable value. He asserts that until the early twenty-first century, social entrepreneurs could choose whether to organize either for-profit companies or a nonprofit organizations. Recently, however, a variety of new innovative legal structures have been designed for entrepreneurs who are driven as much by mission as money. The choice of organizational entity depends on circumstances, goals, and jurisdiction.

Williams, Oliver F. 2003. Business, Religion, & Spirituality: A New Synthesis. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

The author, a Catholic priest and business professor at Notre Dame, writes from the discipline of management. He examines beliefs about business and ethics from a variety of faith traditions, including Catholic and more general Christian ones. 

Williams, Oliver. 2013. “The Purpose of Business: Advancing the Common Good.” Business World Online. Accessed March 5, 2016.

The author, a Catholic priest and business professor at Notre Dame, examines the purpose of business. He asserts that the traditional answer to this question was to make money. Recently, however, a number of business leaders assume a much wider purpose of business, where the purpose is to create sustainable value for all stakeholders. The author asserts this is a vague concept and suggests engaging Catholic Social Teaching (CST) for a more helpful moral compass.

Witherington, Ben. 2011. Work: A Kingdom Perspective on Labor. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

The author reflects on the theme of work in Scripture and its potential application to modern culture. He asserts that until the millennium, there was a shortage of theological reflections on this important aspect of the Christian life. He argues this lack was problematic, considering that humanity spends an enormous part of their lives working, that the Bible has a great deal to say about this subject, and that work can and should be the main domain where the disciple of Christ is spiritually formed, fulfills their calling, and brings glory to God.

Wittmer, Michael Eugene. 2004. Heaven Is a Place on Earth: Why Everything You Do Matters to God. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

The author examines the goodness of the material world and its implications for the Christian life, including work. Wittmer discusses why humanity exists, where humans are going to end up, and how humanity gets there following Creation, Fall, and Redemption. The author pushes back against the notion that anything physical is bad and that a Christian's goal is to leave this earth as described in Revelation 21; instead, he suggests Christians should remain faithful to the biblical texts and demonstrate how God truly is Immanuel (God with us).

Wong, Kenman L. and Scott B. Rae. 2011. Business for the Common Good: A Christian Vision for the Marketplace. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Academic.

The authors offer a framework for understanding business ethics from a Christian perspective. They conclude that business activity is good when it is oriented towards its proper end: productive contribution to the common good of the community.

Yamamori, Tetsunao and Kenneth A. Eldred. 2003. On Kingdom Business. Wheaton, IL: Crossway.

This book proposes a new paradigm for business and missions: Kingdom entrepreneurship. Kingdom entrepreneurs are job-makers who start for-profit businesses of all sizes that meet real needs instead of using business for “undercover” evangelism. The authors offer a conceptual framework for Kingdom entrepreneurship and explore its contemporary development using case studies of businesses and reflecting on lessons learned by other Kingdom entrepreneurs.

Young, Rowena. 2006. “For What It Is Worth: Social Value and the Future of Social Entrepreneurship.” In Social Entrepreneurship: New Paradigms of Sustainable Social Change. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

This chapter describes how social value is created and measured by social entrepreneurs and stakeholders. It discusses the difficulty of balancing commercial and social objectives and acknowledges that social enterprise must be understood through multiple analytic frameworks. The author attempts to pinpoint the common thread that ties social entrepreneurs, some components of which include creating social value, making sustainable systemic change, and being socially innovative in order to maximize efficiency. 

Yunus, Muhammad and Alan Jolis. 2009. Banker to the Poor Micro-Lending and the Battle Against World Poverty. New York, NY: Public Affairs.

This book is a memoir of Muhammad Yunus’ decision to change his life to help the world's poor. He shares the intellectual and spiritual journey that led him to fundamentally rethink the economic relationship between rich and poor and the challenges he and his colleagues faced in founding Grameen Bank, which provides the poorest of Bangladesh with microloans.

Yunus, Muhammad and Karl Weber. 2007. Creating a World Without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism. New York, NY: Public Affairs.

Yunus is generally thought of as the father of microfinance. Here he asserts that in the last two decades of the twentieth century, free markets swept the globe, but traditional capitalism has been unable to solve problems like inequality and poverty. He examines the concept of social business, which he sees as business in which the creative vision of the entrepreneur is applied to society’s most serious problem.

Yunus, Muhammad, Bertrand Moingeon, and Laurence Lehmann-Ortega. 2010. “Building Social Business Models: Lessons from the Grameen Experience.” Long Range Planning 43(2): 308-325.

The article traces the development of Grameen Bank's social business models. The authors assert that Grameen’s approach required new value propositions, value constellations, and profit equations, and therefore new business model innovation. The article presents five lessons learned from this experience: three are similar to those of conventional business model innovation: challenging conventional thinking, finding complementary partners, and undertaking continuous experimentation. And two are specific to social business models: recruiting social-profit-oriented shareholders and specifying social profit objectives clearly and early. The authors argue these new business models—in which stakeholders replace shareholders as the focus of value maximization—could empower capitalism to address overwhelming global concerns.

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